The mechanism of a turbocharger works in such a way so as to allow the engine to burn fuel better and to pack more air into the existing cylinders. This helps to generate more effective power out of the engine. The turbocharger is secured to the exhaust manifold of the vehicle engine. The exhaust from the cylinders helps to rotate the turbine. If more exhaust enters through the blades, the faster the turbine rotates. The turbine is in turn, connected by a shaft that leads to the compressor which is situated in between the intake manifold and air filter. It is a centrifugal pump which takes in air through the centre of the blade. The function of the compressor is to add pressure to the air which enters the pistons.
Since the turbine rotate at a very high speed of up to 150,000 rpm, the shaft of the turbine should be supported very carefully for it to handle the speed. Under such a high speed, most bearings are likely to explode, so turbochargers use fluid bearing. This allows the shaft to be well supported on a thin layer of oil that is being pumped continually around the pump. The fluid bearing has two purposes. One is to cool the shaft and certain other parts of the turbocharger and another is that is enables the shaft to rotate without too much of friction.
A problem with turbochargers is that it cannot give an instant increase in power when the engine starts. This causes a feeling of turbo lag and one of the ways of reducing this effect is by reducing the inertia of the spinning components by lessening the weight of it. This makes it easier for the turbine and compressor to accelerate faster.